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各国历年钢铁产

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这是一份各国历年钢铁产量的表格: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_steel_production 

This is a list of countries by steel production in 1967, 1980, 1990, 2000 and from 2007 to 2014, based on data provided by the World Steel Association.[1][2][3][4] [5] [6] [7] [8]

Crude steel production (million metric tons):
); cursor: pointer; background-position: 100% 50%, 100% 50%; background-repeat: no-repeat no-repeat;">Rank (2014) ); cursor: pointer; background-position: 100% 50%, 100% 50%; background-repeat: no-repeat no-repeat;">Country/Region ); cursor: pointer; background-position: 100% 50%, 100% 50%; background-repeat: no-repeat no-repeat;">1967 ); cursor: pointer; background-position: 100% 50%, 100% 50%; background-repeat: no-repeat no-repeat;">1980 ); cursor: pointer; background-position: 100% 50%, 100% 50%; background-repeat: no-repeat no-repeat;">1990 ); cursor: pointer; background-position: 100% 50%, 100% 50%; background-repeat: no-repeat no-repeat;">2000 ); cursor: pointer; background-position: 100% 50%, 100% 50%; background-repeat: no-repeat no-repeat;">2007 ); cursor: pointer; background-position: 100% 50%, 100% 50%; background-repeat: no-repeat no-repeat;">2008 ); cursor: pointer; background-position: 100% 50%, 100% 50%; background-repeat: no-repeat no-repeat;">2009 ); cursor: pointer; background-position: 100% 50%, 100% 50%; background-repeat: no-repeat no-repeat;">2010 ); cursor: pointer; background-position: 100% 50%, 100% 50%; background-repeat: no-repeat no-repeat;">2011 ); cursor: pointer; background-position: 100% 50%, 100% 50%; background-repeat: no-repeat no-repeat;">2012 ); cursor: pointer; background-position: 100% 50%, 100% 50%; background-repeat: no-repeat no-repeat;">2013 ); cursor: pointer; background-position: 100% 50%, 100% 50%; background-repeat: no-repeat no-repeat;">2014 ); cursor: pointer; background-position: 100% 50%, 100% 50%; background-repeat: no-repeat no-repeat;">2015[9]
 World 497.2 716.4 770.4 850.1 1,351.3 1326.5 1,219.7 1,413.6 1,490.1 1552.9 1649.3 1670.1 1599.5
1 China People's Republic of China 14 37.1 66.35 128.5 494.9 500.3 573.6 626.7 683.3 724.7 779.0 822.70 803.83
-  European Union n/a 208.0 191.8 193.5 210.2 198.2 139.3 172.8 177.7 168.6 166.36 169.30 166.18
2 Japan Japan 62 111.4 110.3 106.4 120.2 118.7 87.5 109.6 107.6 107.2 110.6 110.67 105.15
3 India India 6.3 9.5 14.96 26.9 53.5 57.8 62.8 68.3 72.2 77.3 81.2 87.29 89.58
4 United States United States 115 101.4 89.7 101.8 98.1 91.4 58.2 80.6 86.2 88.6 87.0 88.17 78.92
5 Russia Russia n/a n/a n/a 59.1 72.4 68.5 60.0 66.9 68.7 70.6 69.4 71.46 71.11
6 South Korea South Korea 0.3 8.5 23.1 43.1 51.5 53.6 48.6 58.5 68.5 69.3 66.0 71.54 69.73
7 Germany Germany 41.3 51.1 43.980 46.376 48.6 45.8 32.7 43.8 44.3 42.7 42.6 42.94 42.68
8 Brazil Brazil 3.6 15.3 20.567 27.865 33.8 33.7 26.5 32.8 35.2 34.7 34.2 33.90 33.25
9 Turkey Turkey 1.0 2.5 9.443 14.325 25.8 26.8 25.3 29.0 34.1 35.9 34.7 34.04 31.52
10 Ukraine Ukraine n/a 52.353 54.655 31.767 42.8 37.3 29.9 33.6 35.3 32.9 32.8 27.17 22.93
11 Italy Italy 15.9 26.5 25.467 26.759 31.6 30.6 19.7 25.8 28.7 27.2 24.1 23.71 22.02
12 Mexico Mexico 3.0 7.1 8.734 15.631 17.6 17.2 14.2 17.0 18.1 18.1 18.2 19.00 18.26
13 Iran Iran n/a 0.5 1.425 6.615 10.1 10.0 10.9 12.0 13.0 14.5 15.4 16.33 16.11
14 France France 19.6 23.1 19.016 20.954 19.3 17.9 12.8 15.4 15.8 15.6 15.7 16.14 14.98
15 Spain Spain 4.5 12.8 12.936 15.874 19.0 18.6 14.3 16.3 15.6 13.6 13.7 14.25 14.88
16 Canada Canada 8.8 15.9 12.281 16.595 15.6 14.8 9.0 13.0 13.1 13.5 12.4 12.73 12.45
17 United Kingdom United Kingdom 24.3 11.3 17.841 15.155 14.3 13.5 10.1 9.7 9.5 9.6 11.9 12.12 10.86
18 Poland Poland 10.4 19.5 13.633 10.498 10.6 9.7 7.2 8.0 8.8 8.4 8.0 8.56 9.11
19 Austria Austria 3.0 4.6 4.291 5.707 7.6 7.6 5.7 7.2 7.5 7.4 7.9 7.88 7.69
20 South Africa South Africa 3.7 9.1 8.619 8.481 9.1 8.3 7.5 8.5 6.7 7.1 7.2 6.55 7.61
21 Belgium Belgium 9.7 12.3 11.453 11.636 10.7 10.7 5.6 8.1 8.1 7.4 7.1 7.33 7.22
22 Netherlands Netherlands 3.4 5.3 5.412 5.666 7.4 6.8 5.2 6.7 6.9 6.9 6.7 6.96 7.00
Vietnam Vietnam n/a 0.06 0.102 0.306 2.3 2.7 2.7 2.7 4.9 5.3 5.6 5.85 n/a
23 Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia n/a 0.05 1.790 2.981 4.6 4.7 4.7 5.0 5.3 5.2 5.4 6.29 5.66
24 Egypt Egypt 0.4 1.0 2.240 2.838 6.2 6.2 5.5 6.7 6.5 6.6 6.8 6.49 5.51
25 Czech Republic Czech Republic n/a n/a 9.712 6.216 7.1 6.4 4.6 5.2 5.6 5.1 5.2 5.36 5.26
26 Argentina Argentina 1.3 2.7 3.636 4.474 5.4 5.5 4.0 5.1 5.7 5.0 5.2 5.49 5.03
27 Australia Australia 6.3 7.6 6.676 7.129 7.9 7.6 5.2 7.3 6.4 4.9 4.7 4.61 4.93
28 Slovakia Slovakia n/a n/a 5.063 3.733 5.1 4.5 3.7 4.6 4.2 4.4 4.5 4.71 4.56
Indonesia Indonesia n/a 0.5 2.892 2.848 4.1 3.9 3.5 3.6 3.6 2.3 2.6 4.43 n/a
29 Sweden Sweden 4.7 4.2 4.455 5.227 5.7 5.2 2.8 4.8 4.9 4.3 4.4 4.54 4.38
Malaysia Malaysia 0.06 0.2 1.100 3.650 6.9 6.4 4.0 4.1 5.9 5.6 4.7 4.32 n/a
30 Finland Finland 0.4 2.5 2.9 4.1 4.4 4.4 3.1 4.0 4.0 3.8 3.5 3.81 3.99
31 Thailand Thailand 0.035 0.45 0.685 2.100 5.6 5.2 3.6 3.7 4.2 3.3 3.6 4.10 3.67
32 Kazakhstan Kazakhstan n/a n/a 7.428 4.769 4.8 4.3 4.1 4.3 4.7 3.9 3.3 3.68 3.55
Romania Romania 4.1 13.2 9.754 4.672 6.3 5.0 2.7 3.9 3.8 3.3 3.0 3.16 n/a
33 United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates n/a 0.045 0.045 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.2 0.5 2.0 2.4 2.9 2.39 3.01
34 Pakistan Pakistan x 0.04 0.8 1.0 1.1 2.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.6 1.9 2.42 2.91
35 Belarus Belarus n/a n/a 1.452 1.502 2.4 2.6 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.2 2.51 2.62
36 Qatar Qatar n/a 0.46 0.564 0.729 1.1 1.4 1.4 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.2 3.02 2.59
37 Luxembourg Luxembourg 4.5 4.6 3.560 2.571 2.9 2.6 2.1 2.5 2.5 2.2 2.1 2.19 2.13
 Others[10] n/a n/a n/a n/a 30.7 (est.) 28.6 (est.) 23.3 (est.) 26.5 (est.) 29.9 29.5 28.4 n/a >2.00

Exports[edit]

Top steel exporters in 2013[11]
Rank Country Mt
1 China 61.5
2 Japan 42.5
- European Union[12] 38.7
3 South Korea 28.9
4 Ukraine 24.7
4 Germany 24.3
6 Russia 23.6
7 Turkey 17.3
8 Italy 16.9
9 France 14.2
10 Belgium 13.9
11 United States 12.5
12 Taiwan 11.6
13 India 10.1
14 Spain 9.3
15 Netherlands 8.8
Top steel net exporters in 2013[11]
Rank Country Mt
1 China 46.8
2 Japan 37.1
3 Ukraine 23.0
4 Russia 17.1
5 South Korea 9.9
- European Union[12] 7.9
6 Brazil 4.4
7 Taiwan 3.8
7 Belgium 3.8
9 Austria 3.7
10 Turkey 2.8
11 Netherlands 2.6
11 Slovakia 2.6
13 India 2.3

Imports[edit]

Top steel importers in 2013[11]
Rank Country Volume
- European Union[12] 30.8
1 United States 30.3
2 Germany 22.1
3 South Korea 19.0
4 Thailand 15.9
5 Italy 15.6
6 China 14.8
7 Turkey 14.5
8 France 13.2
9 Indonesia 12.3
10 Belgium 10.1
11 Vietnam 10.0
12 Canada 8.9
13 Poland 8.1
14 Taiwan 7.8
15 Mexico 7.7
Top steel net importers in 2013[11]
Rank Country Volume
1 United States 17.8
2 Thailand 14.4
3 Indonesia 11.6
4 Vietnam 8.6
5 Saudi Arabia 6.4
6 United Arab Emirates 5.3
7 Algeria 5.1
8 Philippines 4.8
9 Iraq 4.5
10 Egypt 3.9
10 Singapore 3.9
12 Hong Kong 3.2
13 Canada 3.1
13 Poland 3.1
15 Iran 2.7

  对比2007年与2015年的产量, 可以看出, 中国2015年占全世界钢铁产量的比重为37%, 2015年则为51%, 外国只占49%。 


  表中可以看出,大多数国家, 2015年的钢铁产量,比2007年要低。 这些国家包括美国德国日本俄罗斯法国英国意大利加拿大这个原来的G8集团, 这8个国家, 钢铁产量全部低于2007年。 


  中国钢铁大发展, 不但给中国带来了巨大的就业和税收, 而且由于规模效应带来的低成本, 给中国带来很多好处。低成本的钢铁, 可以让中国建设低廉的房屋和高速公路, 中国的高铁和造船因此更有竞争力。 长远来看, 只要涉及钢铁的行业, 都可以因此获得竞争优势, 比如汽车, 机床等等。 

  大规模的钢铁行业就业人员, 也会锻炼出大批优秀的技术工人和研发人员, 这是未来中国钢铁工业超越其他国家最大的优势。 中国钢铁工业将从数量上到质量上都以巨大优势碾压外国, 这是不可扭转的趋势。 

  钢铁只是中国工业的一小部分, 它只是中国工业这些年发展的一个缩影。 但我相信, 它这些年发展的趋势, 一定是中国工业未来的趋势。


 


  世界银行:2014年中国与西方七国集团高科技出口数据
  
  高科技出口(现价美元)
  高科技出口产品是指具有高研发强度的产品,例如航空航天、计算机、医药、科学仪器、电气机械。数据按现价美元计。
  联合国商品贸易统计 (Comtrade) 数据库。

  中国7.51324835709e+11
  德国1.99718151684e+11
  美国1.55640595588e+11
  法国1.14697237252e+11
  日本1.00954836424e+11
  英国0.70652924421e+11
  加拿大0.31552262953e+11
  意大利0.30744972831e+11

 

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