的军队，拥有当时最强大的攻城武器。一种叫投石机，是亚述军队特有的一种攻城器械。它们是一个个巨大的木框，里面装有一种特制的转盘，上面绞着用马鬃和橡树皮编成的绳索。只要用力一拉，就能射出巨大的石弹和燃烧着的油桶。还有一种攻城锤，是由青铜铸成的，攻城时用来撞击城墙。 ??亚述的军队兵种齐全，分为战车兵、骑兵、重装步兵、轻装步兵、攻城兵、工兵等。行军非常迅速，就是过河也不困难，他们善于使用充气的皮囊渡河。这种皮囊可以联结起来，安置在河面上，从这岸排到那岸，上面再铺上树枝，就成了一条军用的浮桥。 到公元前７世纪中叶，亚述帝国
渐渐衰落。埃及首先摆脱了亚述的统治。随后，东北方 的游牧部落接连兴起，也日益威胁着尼尼微。公元前６２６年，居住在新巴比伦的迦勒底人 和东边的米底人联合起来进攻亚述。
公元前６１２年，新巴比伦和米底联军攻进了尼尼微。 尼尼微在被洗劫一空后，又被放了一把大火，一代名城尼尼微和庞大的亚述帝国一起，就这 样从地面上消失了。
Early Period "Kings who lived in tents" Zuabu Nuabu, son of Zuabu Abazu, viceroy of Manishtusu of Akkad, son of Nuabu Belu or Tillu, son of Abazu, Asarah, son of Belu Ititi Enlil-kabkabu Ushpia fl. ca. 2020 BC Kikkia Akiya Puzur-Ashur I fl. ca.1975 BC Shallim-ahhe Ilushuma raids into southern Mesoptamia Erishum I 1939-1900 BC Ikunum Akkadian Empire Sargon I (rule at the Temple / Castle of Nimud, see Nimrud) United Mesopotamia (Sumer & Akkad) Puzur-Ashur II Naram-Sin Erishum II Shamshi-Adad I 1813-1781 BC Ishme-Dagan 1780-1741 BC Mut-ashkur Rimush Asinum Puzur-Sin [six kings] Adari fl. c. 1700 BC Belu-bani 1700-1691 BC Libaia 1690-1674 BC Sharma-Adad I 1673-1662 BC Iptar-Sin 1661-1650 BC Bazaira 1649-1622 BC Lullaia 1621-1618 BC Kidin-Ninua 1615-1602 BC Sharma-Adad II 1601 BC Erishum III 1598-1586 BC Shamshi-Adad II 1585-1580 BC Erishum III Shamshi-Adad II Ishme-Dagan II Shamshi-Adad III Ashur-nirari I 1547-1522 BC Puzur-Ashur III 1521-1598 BC Enlil-nasir I Nur-ili Ashur-rabi I Ashur-nadin-ahhe I Enlil-nasir II Ashur-nirari II Ashur-bel-nisheshu Ashur-nadin-ahhe II d.1393 BC Middle Assyrian Period Eriba-Adad I (1392-1366 BC) Ashur-uballit I (1365-1330 BC) Enlil-nirari (1330-1319 BC) Arik-den-ili (1319-1308 BC) Adad-nirari I (1307-1275 BC) Shalmaneser I (1274-1245 BC) Tukulti-Ninurta I (1244-1208 BC) Ashur-nadin-apli Ashur-nirari III Enlil-kudurri-usur Ninurta-apal-Ekur (1192-1180 BC) Ashur-Dan I(1179-1134 BC) Ashur-resh-ishi I (1133-1116 BC) Tiglath-Pileser I (1115-1077 BC) Asharid-apal-Ekur (1077-1074 BC) Ashur-bel-kala (1074-1057 BC) Shamshi-Adad IV (1057-1050 BC) Ashurnasirpal I (1050-1032 BC) Shalmaneser II (1031-1020 BC) Ashur-nirari IV (1020-1016 BC) Ashur-rabi II (1016-973 BC) Ashur-resh-ishi II (973-967 BC) Tiglath-Pileser II (967-935 BC) Ashur-Dan II (934-912 BC) Neo-Assyrian Period Adad-nirari II (911 - 891 BC) Tukulti-Ninurta II (891 - 883 BC) Ashurnasirpal II (883 - 859 BC) Shalmaneser III (858 - 824 BC) Shamshi-Adad V (823 - 811 BC) Adad-nirari III (810 - 783 BC) Semiramis, regent, (810 - 805 BC) Shalmaneser IV (783 - 772 BC) Ashur-Dan III (772 - 755 BC) Ashur-nirari V (754 - 745 BC) Tiglath-Pileser III (744 - 727 BC) Shalmaneser V (727 - 722 BC) Sargon II (722 - 705 BC) Sennacherib (705 - 681 BC) Esarhaddon (681 - 669 BC) Ashurbanipal (669 - c.627 BC) Ashur-etil-ilani (627 - c.623 BC) Sin-shar-ishkun (623 - c.612 BC) In 612 BC, Nineveh, the Assyrian capital, fell to the Medes and Babylonians; supported by the Egyptians, an Assyrian general continued to rule for a few years from Harran as Ashur-uballit II (c.612 - c.609 BC)
Tiglath-Pileser III Tiglath-Pileser III — stela from the walls of his palace (British Museum, London)Tiglath-Pileser III or IV (or Tilgath-Pil-neser or Tiglatpilesar III), was a prominent king of Assyria in the 8th century BC (ruled 744–727 BC). The name Tiglath-Pileser was a throne-name — that is, one given to the king on his accession to the throne, rather than a name given at birth. In translation, it means "my confidence is the son of Esarra." It is given in several different forms in historical records. The Bible records him as Tillegath-pilneser (2 Chronicles 28:20) and the much-abbreviated Pul (1 Chronicles 5:26 and 2 Kings 15:19,20). In Assyrian cuneiform, his name is given as Tukulti-apil-esarra, which has been rendered into modern languages as Tiglath-Pileser - a great cat name. His origins are unknown but he may have been a usurper who assumed the name of a more legitimate predecessor. Under his rule, Assyrian power in the Near East greatly increased as the result of campaigns of conquest mounted against western kingdoms. Assyrian inscriptions record, in the fifth year of his reign (739 BC), a victory over Azariah (Uzziah), king of Judah, whose achievements are described in 2 Chronicles 26:6-15. In 733 BC his armies conquered Philistia on the Mediterranean coast, destroyed Damascus and occupied most of Israel, with its northern regions becoming Assyrian provinces. Many of the inhabitants were impaled or deported to other parts of the Assyrian empire. These events were recorded in the Bible, which describes how Tiglath-Pileser III defeated Pekah, king of Israel, and Rezin, king of the Arameans, who had allied against him. He executed Rezin and Pekah was murdered by Hoshea, who took control of the rump Israelite kingdom as a vassal paying tribute to the Assyrians. (2 Kings 15:29; 16:5-9; 1 Chronicles 5:6, 26) Ahaz (known to the Assyrians as Yahu-khazi), the king of Judah, was also forced to pay tribute to the Assyrian conqueror (2 Kings 16:10-16). Tiglath-Pileser III's conquests paved the way for the establishment of the Second Assyrian Empire. On his death, the Assyrian throne was seized by Ululai, the governor of Babylon, who assumed the name Shalmaneser V.
Sargon II of Assyria Sargon II, captor of Samaria, with a dignitarySargon II (r. 721 BC-705 BC) was an Assyrian king. He took the throne from Shalmanassar V in 722 BC. It is not clear if he was the son of Tiglatpilesar III or a usurper unrelated to the royal family. In his inscriptions, he styles himself as a new man, rarely referring to his predecessors, and he took the name Sharru-kinu, true king, after Sargon of Akkad, a mighty king who had been found in a wicker basket, a child of a temple prostitute and an unknown father. Sargon is the name given by the Bible. Beset by difficulties at the beginning of his rule, Sargon made a pact with the Chaldean Marduk-apla-iddin. He freed all temples, as well as the inhabitants of the towns of Assur and Harran from taxes. While Sargon was thus trying to gain support in Assyria, Marduk-apla-iddin conquered Babylon with the help of the new Elamite king Ummanigash and was crowned king in 721. In 720 Sargon moved against Elam, but the Assyrian host was defeated near Der. Later this year, Sargon defeated a Syrian coalition at Qarqar, which gained him control of Arpad, Simirra and Damascus. Sargon conquered Gaza in Palestine, destroyed Raphia and won a victory over Egyptian troops. On his way back, he had Samaria rebuilt as the capital of the new province of Samerina and settled it with Arabs. In 717 he conquered parts of the Zagros mountains and the Hittite city of Carchemish on the Upper Euphrates. In 716 he moved against the kingdom of Mannai, where the ruler Aza, son of Iranzu, had been deposed by Ullusunu with the help of the Urartians. Sargon took the capital Izirtu, and stationed troops in Parsuash (original home of Persian tribe, on lake Urmia) and Kar-Nergal (Kishesim). He built new bases in Media as well, the main being Harhar and Kar-Sharrukin. In 715, others were to follow: Kar-Nabu, Kar-Sin and Kar-Ishtar, all named after Babylonian gods and resettled by Assyrian subjects. The 8th campaign of Sargon against Urartu in 714 is well known from a letter from Sargon to the god Ashur (found in the town of Assur, now in the Louvre, Paris) and the bas-reliefs in the palace of Dur-Sharrukin. The campaign was probably motivated by the fact that the Urartians had been weakened by incursions of the Cimmerians, a nomadic steppe tribe. One Urartian army had been completely annihilated, and the General Qaqqadanu taken prisoner. The Cimmerians were mentioned a number of times in letters by the crown-prince Sennacherib, who ran his father's intelligence service, that unfortunately cannot be dated exactly, but are believed to have been composed before 713. The letters relate how Sargon crossed the upper and lower Zab and moved over the mountains of Kullar in the direction of Lake Urmia, crossing the country of Zikirtu, whose ruler Metatti had fled to Uishdish, the provinces of Surikash, Allabria and parts of Parsuash. The reliefs show the difficulties of the terrain: the war-chariots had to be dismantled and carried by soldiers (with the king still in the chariot), the latter describes how ways had to be cut into the intractable forests.
After reaching Lake Urmia he turned east and entered Zikirtu and Andia on the Caspian slopes of the Caucasus. When news reached him that king Rusas I of Urartu (730-713 BC) was moving against him, he turned back to Lake Urmia in forced marches and defeated an Urartian army in a steep valley of the Uaush (probably the Sahend, east of Lake Urmia, or further to the South, in Mannaean country), a steep mountain that reached the clouds and whose flanks were covered by snow. The battle is described as the usual carnage, but King Rusas managed to escape. The horses of his chariot had been killed by Assyrian spears, forcing him to ride a mare in order to get away, very unbecoming for a king. Sargon plundered the fertile lands at the southern and western shore of Lake Urmia, felling orchards and burning the harvest. In the royal resort of Ulhu, the wine-cellar of the Urartian kings was plundered; wine was scooped up like water. The Assyrian host then plundered Sangibuti and marched north to Van without meeting resistance, the people having retreated to their castles or fled into the mountains, having been warned by fire-signals. Sargon claims to have destroyed 430 empty villages. After reaching Lake Van, Sargon left Urartu via Uaiaish. In Hubushkia he received the tribute of Nairi. While most of the army returned to Assyria, Sargon went on to sack the Urartian temple of the god Haldi and his wife Bagbartu at Musasir (Ardini). The loot must have been impressive; its description takes up 50 columns in the letter to Assur. More than 1 ton of gold and 5 tons of silver fell into the hands of the Assyrians; 334,000 objects in total. A relief from Dur Sharrukin depicted the sack of Musasir as well (that unfortunately fell into the Tigris in 1846 when Botta transported his loot to Paris). Musasir was annexed. Sargon claims to have lost only one charioteer, 2 horsemen and three couriers on this occasion. King Rusa was understandably despondent when he heard of the loss of Musasir, and fell ill. According to the imperial annals, he took his own life with his own iron sword, like a pig. In 713 Sargon stayed at home; his troops took, among others, Karalla, Tabal and Cilicia. Some Mede rulers offered tribute. In 711, Gurgum was conquered. A rising in Ashdod, supported by Judah, Moab, Edom and Egypt was suppressed, and Ashdod became an Assyrian province. In 710 Sargon felt safe enough in his rule to move against his Babylonian arch-enemy. One army moved against Elam and her new king Shutruk-Nahhunte II (Shutur-Nahundi); the other, under Sargon himself, against Babylon. Sargon laid siege to Babylon, and Marduk-apla-iddin fled. He was finally captured in the swamps of the Shatt-el-Arab (though as he seems to have proven a thorn in the side of Sennacherib later on, this might not have been quite true). Southern Babylonia, settled by nomadic Aramaic tribes, was conquered and turned into the province of Gambulu. After the capture of Marduk-apla-iddin, Babylon yielded to Sargon and he was proclaimed king of Babylonia in 710, thus restoring the dual monarchy of Babylonia and Assyria. He remained in Babylon for three years. In 709, he led the new-year procession as king of Babylon. He had his son, crown-prince Sennacherib, married to the Aramaic noblewoman Naqi'a, and stayed in the south to pacify the Aramaic and Chaldean tribes of the lower Euphrates as well as the Suti nomads. Some areas at the border to Elam were occupied as well.
In 710, the seven kings of Ia' (Cyprus) had accepted Assyrian sovereignty; in 709 Midas, king of Phrygia, beset by the nomadic Cimmerians, submitted to Assyrian rule and in 708, Kummuhu (Commagene) became an Assyrian province. Assyria was at the apogee of its power. Urartu had almost succumbed to the Cimmerians, Elam was weakened, Marduk-apla-iddin was momentarily powerless, and the Egyptian influence in Syria was temporarily waning as well. Sargon preferred Niniveh to the traditional capital at Ashur. In 713 he ordered the construction of a new palace and town called Dur-Sharrukin (House of Sargon, Khorsabad), 20 km north of Niniveh at the foot of the Gebel Musri. Land was bought, and the debts of construction workers were nullified in order to attract a sufficient labour force. The land in the environs of the town was taken under cultivation, and olive groves were planted to increase Assyria's deficient oil-production. The town was of rectangular layout and measured 1760 by 1635 m. The length of the walls was 16,280 Assyrian units, corresponding to the numerical value of Sargon's name. The town was partly settled by prisoners of war and deportees under the control of Assyrian officials ,who had to assure they were paying sufficient respect to the gods and the king. The court moved to Dur-Sharrukin in 706, although it was not completely finished yet. In 705, Sargon fell in a campaign against the Cimmerians, who were later to destroy the kingdoms of Urartu and Phrygia before moving even further west. Sargon was followed by his son Sennacherib (Sin-ahhe-eriba, 704-681 BC). Under his rule the Assyrians completed the defeat of the Kingdom of Israel, capturing Samaria after a siege of three years and dispersing the inhabitants. This became the basis of the legend of the Lost Ten Tribes.